When a regular capsule or pill is ingested it must first pass from the mouth through the digestive system to finally be absorbed in the small intestine.
During this process, digestives enzymes in the mouth and stomach, digestive acids, bile salts and various gut flora degrade the nutrients before they are finally metabolised by the liver and made available to the body.
This entire process slows and reduces the nutrients' bioavailability. Phospholipids are impervious to the various digestive juices. This makes liposomes the perfect delivery system for acid and enzyme-reactive substances.
Once the liposome has reached the small intestine it is absorbed by the enterocytes of the villi. Inside the enterocytes, the liposomes are incorporated into chylomicrons. Together, they travel through the lymph system, bypassing the liver (portal circulation) into the subclavian vein.
Another major advantage of the liposomal delivery system is the way it delivers the nutrients on an intra-cellular level. A liposome can do this in a number of ways:
Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a process in which the liposome gains entry into a cell without actually passing through the cell membrane. The cell engulfs the liposome forming a membrane-bounded vesicle called an endosome.
Adsorption: The liposome wall adheres to that of the cell and releases its payload into the cell.
Fusion: The melding of the liposome membrane with the membrane of the cell, carrying the contents of the liposome into the cell.
Lipid Exchange: The contents of the liposome and cell exchange their lipid contents.